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Careers that Require an Educational Technology Masters Degree

 

online masters degree in educational technologyWhile earning an Educational Technology Masters degree is certainly a personal and professional investment for classroom teachers, it can also lead to a variety of exciting career possibilities for those interested in continuing to work in the field, but who see their career in education growing beyond the classroom.

Become a Professor at a College or University
While most four-year colleges and universities require professors to have a Ph.D., community colleges only require their instructors to have an online masters degree in educational technology. Teaching part-time at a community college is a great way to challenge yourself, earn more money, gain more teaching experience with adults, and put your skills to good use in a new learning environment.

Design Online and Hybrid Courses at a College or University

If you enjoy collaborating with other educators, many colleges and universities also require the expertise of those who have earned an educational technology masters degree online. As an educational technologist, you would partner with professors to design online and hybrid courses.

Become an Instructional Designer for Educational Non-Profit Companies

Many educational non-profits require the expertise of qualified instructional designers to work with clients and graphic designers to create fun and engaging learning solutions for students. Earning an educational technology masters degree may give you the opportunity to assist and consult designers of mobile learning apps, games, micro-learning modules, and just-in-time learning experiences.

Work as a Digital Learning Consultant for Textbook Companies
Textbook companies often employee educational technologists to help design digital textbook components,
conduct technology product presentations, and facilitate training workshops for new products. 

Work as an Elementary or Secondary Instructional Technology Coach
Students and teachers are enthusiastic about technology. The problem is that many teachers are all over the map when it comes to the technology continuum. That’s where instructional technology coaches come in! 

In this role, you would collaborate with teachers to align academic and technology initiatives, maintain resources and technology equipment, and educate faculty, students, and parents about the principles of good digital citizenship.


If you are ready to take your career to the next level, you might be interested in learning more about Marygrove College’s Educational Technology Masters Degree.


5 Ways Principals Can Facilitate a Digital Learning Environment

 

principals_Digital Learning EnvironmentMost of us have seen how students respond to technology in the classroom. Teachers, too, are enthusiastic about it, but I think we can all agree that unless classroom technology is used deliberately and strategically, and tied to specific learning objectives, there’s really no reason to introduce it to the classroom environment.

So how can principals help facilitate a digital learning environment? Furthermore, how can they ensure that teachers receive the training and mentoring that is often necessary in order to make this happen?

To help answer these questions, we’d like to share five classroom technology implementation strategies from Janette Hughes and Anne Burke’s new book, The Digital Principal.

5 Ways Principals Can Facilitate a Digital Learning Environment

Teach the Teachers
Whenever one of your teachers attends a conference or workshop, make it an expectation that s/he will share the experience—along with any materials and resources s/he may have gathered—with the rest of the staff. This can happen at a staff meeting, during a professional development day, or occasionally during lunch breaks.

Use Instructional Rounds
Most of us have attended a conference or professional development session in which we listened to someone share exciting ideas about a new teaching strategy—but once it comes time to execute that same strategy, we feel at a loss.

Many of us are visual learners and would benefit from seeing these strategies in action. That’s where the “instructional rounds” approach comes in.

An “instructional rounds” approach offers teachers the opportunity to see a lesson/activity or digital technology piece in use in the classroom context.

In an instructional round, a lead teacher plans a lesson using a digital tool, and a group of teachers sits in on the lesson to observe. After the lesson, with everything still fresh in their minds, the whole group meets outside the classroom to discuss and reflect on what happened.

Keep in mind that this should not be an evaluative exercise!

Try Virtual Book Clubs
Work with the technology team or committee you have established to select a Principal’s Book of the Month—maybe a picture book, a professional book, or a novel. You may want to supplement hardcopy books with digital reading materials like YouTube videos and podcasts.

For your book club, set up a virtual space for interested teachers to discuss the book. When appropriate, the teachers can also create and share related lesson plans that use digital technology. You can lead the discussion yourself or arrange for a technology team member (or volunteer) to do it. In any event, be sure to take part so that your staff sees that you are committed to the endeavor.

Partner With Other Schools
At your regular school district principals’ meeting or administrator conferences, ask your colleagues what kinds of technology they are using. If another school in your area is doing something innovative with technology, send a small team of your teachers for a site visit to observe.

Try Out Speed Geeking
We may think we’re tech savvy, but we’ve got nothing on young people like our students, which is one reason to give Speed Geeking a try. Essentially, it’s a professional-development strategy that loosely mimics speed dating, but replaces the dating part with student-led technology sessions.

Students facilitate Speed Geeking by preparing a brief presentation around technology. Each student is given five or ten minutes to share their favorite piece of technology—iMovie, say, or Storybird, Twitter and Flocabulary—and explain to teachers and administrators how it enhances their learning.

I’m intrigued by Speed Geeking for a couple of reasons. First, it’s student-centered. Speed Geeking gives students the opportunity to design instructional practice and values them as contributing members of the school. Second, it’s a way to breathe new life into our stodgy old faculty meetings and get our hands on new tech-tools that we know students respond to.

If you’d like to learn more about Speed Geeking, check out this article by Kim Cofino.

Photo credit: mortsan / Foter / CC BY

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Hiring Teachers: 5 More Tips for Principals

 

Hiring Teachers Tips for PrincipalsLike we said in our last post, it’s a competitive market and odds are that you are going to receive dozens, possibly even hundreds of applications from prospective teachers. So how do principals sift through them to find that proverbial needle in the haystack?

To help you find the right teachers, we’d like to share a few tips from Aspen’s Practical Guide to Interviewing Teachers (unfortunately, this book is currently out of print).

Hiring Teachers: 5 More Tips for Principals

Details give resumes credibility
Sometimes it’s what candidates don’t say that’s most important. Say that an applicant lists “conflict resolution” experience on a resume. That sounds good, but doesn’t necessarily tell you how or even if he or she has been involved with it. It may just be something the applicant read about. On the other hand, if an applicant writes, “Worked with kids in a conflict management program”—and describes, in detail, his or her specific role—the information is a lot more credible.

What do letters of recommendation and references say about applicants?
Reading between the lines also applies to letters of recommendation. Check to see how specific the letters are. If the writer is vague about the applicant’s abilities, you may have a reason to think twice. It’s possible that the reference just didn’t know how to refuse to write a letter of recommendation.

This is especially true when recommenders use vague phrases like “really eager” without going into details. Was the teacher “really eager” to take days off? Or was s/he “really eager” to pursue professional development? We have no way of knowing and, generally speaking, more reason to ask more questions about the applicant.

Review the candidate’s last performance evaluation—if you can
If possible, you might want to look at the most recent performance evaluations of top applicants. If your state doesn’t formally track evaluation information, you can still request that applicants provide you with a copy, or simply bring it to the interview.

Ask applicants to call for application information
One way to conduct an initial screening is to ask all candidates to call for specific information on how to apply for the job. This forces applicants to show initiative and gives you a chance to analyze their communication skills.

Judging candidates when they are recent college graduates
Sizing up the credentials of an applicant is challenging—but it’s even harder when he or she is a fresh-faced college student. That is not to say that you should not consider recent graduates. None of us came out of the womb with 30 years of experience under our belts!

If you are considering a recent graduate, you may want to consider these four clues that often separate future superstars from the rest of the crowd:

Life experiences: Take a hard look at individuals who went back to school after starting families or working in other careers. These folks are experienced—although not necessarily in teaching—able to adapt to change and are often confident.

To find this information, look closely at applicants’ resumes. Candidates’ work histories often indicate life experience and maturity.

Multi-Level experience: The candidate should be able to list practicums at different grade levels. The varied experiences of working at different levels makes candidates more well- rounded—and more appealing. How do you find this? Check under “teaching experience” or “related coursework.”

Professionalism: Teaching is not a 7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. job. Is the applicant aware of this? Look closely at the cover letter. What is the applicant’s tone? Is it riddled with clichés about teaching or is it grounded in reality?

Flexibility: Can this person deal with students who have a lot of needs? How well will the applicant work with other teachers? Will he or she share ideas? If applicants don’t seem flexible, you may want to pass.

Look at the candidate’s student-teaching evaluations—specifically those written by supervising teachers—for clues that tell you something about their flexibility.

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Hiring Teachers: 5 Essential Tips for Principals

 

hiring teachers; tips for principalsHiring teachers is a tricky business. More specifically, though, hiring is a solitary business. We may include the staff, the PTA, or the board in the selection process, but whether they are included or not, the administrator will stand alone if that new hire doesn’t work out.

It’s a competitive market and odds are that you are going to receive dozens, possibly even hundreds of applications from perspective teachers. So how do you sift through them to find that proverbial needle in the haystack?

To help you find the right teachers, we’d like to share a few tips from Aspen’s Practical Guide to Interviewing Teachers (unfortunately, this book is currently out of print).

Decide what type of person you’re looking for
The days when teachers closed their doors and went quietly about their business are long gone. Teachers must be flexible, cooperative and, most of all, team-oriented. Sure, you want someone who can teach kids, but it’s just as important that teachers work with school staff, parents, and the community. Teachers can’t come to work with the attitude that they’re going to just teach.

In hiring, this means you must look for applicants with more than just good teaching credentials. They’ll also need specialized skills, personalities and experience that compliment your existing team—and your vision.  

Start by building a profile of the ideal candidate by answering these questions:

  • What are the specific demands of the position
  • What are the strengths of the department/team/grade level?
  • What are the weaknesses of the department/team/grade level?
  • What type of person will add more balance to the group—but still mesh easily with its members?”

Ask staff members to describe their ideal colleague
It’s your staff, your students and your school. All of you have a right to be picky. Current teachers should have a chance to custom-order their colleague. After all, who knows more about the skills that will make the teaching team more productive? To solicit opinions, meet with staff members at the open position’s grade level before deciding whom to interview.

You may even want to put together a survey for students. Solicit their feedback. What, to them, makes an engaging learning environment? What, to them, makes a strong, fair, and engaging instructor?

Consider the needs of the school and the students
Before you begin weeding out candidates, consider the special needs of your school. Is your school in an affluent district where parents’ expectations are high? Or is your school serving a low-income population? Whatever it is, the population you are serving should play into the selection process.

If candidates have little to no experience with your student population or your school’s “hot-button issues,” you may want to look elsewhere.

Rescue your job descriptions from filing-cabinet purgatory
Job descriptions/posting are often treated as little more than formalities: bureaucratic documents that have to be created, but once they are, usually end up gathering dust inside a filing cabinet or living in purgatory on the company server.

This is unfortunate not only for legal reasons, but also because keeping up-to-date job descriptions offers you the opportunity to improve productivity and increase retention and morale.  

If you’re looking for a new teacher, do not simply repost the same one you used in 1989! There are several reasons you need to invest in a well-written job description.

  • First, the job description is the basis of your search for a new hire
    Going into an interview without a clear job description is like packing for a trip abroad without putting together a list of things to bring. In both cases, you’re bound to forget something. You may think you know what a job entails, but chances are that the position you’re looking to fill has evolved over the years. An up-to-date job description will ensure that candidates know what the position requires and help you weed out unqualified applicants.

  • Second, the job description is an indispensable interview tool
    You may have a set of interview questions you’re in the habit of using, but a detailed and clearly- written job description should ultimately be your interview roadmap.  

    We’ve met interviewers who insist on using questions like, “If you were a bicycle, which part would you be?” or “If you were a cocktail, what kind would you be?” to help them determine which candidates can think on their feet and problem solve. We beg to differ. Questions like this are cute, but they have little to do with whether or not a teacher is qualified. Stick to your job description and use it to frame your interview questions.

  • Third, new employees can use the job description to get an immediate understanding of expectations
    A teacher who only has vague notions of what you and your staff expect is in a precarious and uncomfortable situation. Well-written job descriptions help eliminate the fear, uncertainty, and doubt that often accompany the decision to accept a new teaching position.

Did the candidate supply you with a philosophy of teaching statement?
CVs and cover letters convey useful information, but the philosophy of teaching statement is often more revealing than any other document prospective teachers will supply you with. If you didn’t receive one of these, that may be reason enough for you to move on to the next candidate.

A good philosophy of teaching statement should really get at the heart of who this candidate is, why s/he teaches, and how s/he teaches. For a more detailed description of what to look for in a philosophy of teaching statement, check out an article called “The Dreaded Teaching Statement: Eight Pitfalls.”  

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20 of the Best Brain Breaks for Students

 

 brain breaks

The closer to the holiday break we get, the harder it is for our students to focus; they’re either falling asleep or climbing the walls! To help you refocus your students’ energy and get them back on track, we’d like to share 20 of our favorite brain breaks.

Desk Switch
Give your students 10 seconds to grab their materials and find another desk to sit in. They will remain in this desk until the end of the lesson. There are two reasons we do this: First, it gets them moving; second, being in a different location often helps them see the environment in a new way.

Position Switch
Many teachers are sticklers for good posture, but in our experience, one of the best ways to help students focus is by allowing them to turn their chairs around and sit straddling the chair so that their hands can rest on the back. Sitting like this is a rare treat for students—and we’ve yet to see any misshapen spines as a result.

Go on a gallery walk. Set up several stations around the room and place a different image or object on each one. To give students a clear sense of purpose, provide them with a series of questions or tasks that they must complete at each station. When they are done, gather as a class and have each group share its conclusions.

Active Survey: Survey your students by asking questions and having them step to a side or corner of the room that represents their response. This gets students up and moving and out of their seats!

Fidget Bucket
If your students can’t sit still, put together a fidget bucket. This may include stress balls, stuffed animals or even random items that you have lying around the house like bottle caps, corks and magnets. Objects like this allow students to keep their hands busy, but still focus on what’s going on in the classroom.

Toss Them a Foam Ball
Instead of calling on students, toss them a foam ball.

Walk Around the Room
Instead of gluing yourself to the whiteboard, wander around the room as you teach. Human instinct provokes us to follow things that move, so don’t be surprised when your students start tracking you!

Pretend to be confused: If your students are dozing off, pretend to be confused about the lesson you’re teaching. Everything that you knew is suddenly confusing and the only way you can get out of this predicament is with your students’ help.

Select a Code Word
If your students are nodding off, arrange a code word—something fun like “Boom!” or “Shazam!” Whenever students hear this word, they must use both hands to hit the tops of their desks two times and then clap two times. This should wake them up!

“Wot dat yeh sey?”
If you’re not afraid to tap into your silly side, teach a short (notice the emphasis on short) part of your lesson with an accent. Our cockney English accent isn’t the greatest, but our students seem to think so. 

Roll the Physical Activity Cube
In our perusal of Pinterest, we came across set of instructions to create a physical activity cube. Each side of the cube has a different exercise—spin in a circle, jump five times, flap your arms like a bird, hop on one foot, etc. When students need to wake up, we pull out the cube and give it a roll.

Crab Walk around the Room
Put on a song and have students walk in the crab position around the room. At some point, have students go in reverse. 

Heads Up, 7-Up
Another classic that is easy and exciting for students!

Stretching
Choose a student to come up and lead a minute of stretching.  Most students know various stretches from gym class and will enjoy leading their peers!

Pantomime
Choose a student to act out an activity without talking.  The class must mimic the leader and then guess what the activity is (swimming, flying, sleeping, laughing, jogging, singing, etc.).

Mirror-Mirror
Have students pair up and mirror the actions of their partner. Students will get a kick out of this activity!

Thumb Wrestling
Have students choose a partner and participate in some old-fashioned thumb wrestling. Be sure to establish your expectations before this little brain break.  

Sky Writing
Have students “sky write” their ABCs, sight words, spelling words, or a secret message to their friend.  

Air Band
Choose an "air" instrument and "rock out!"  Drums, guitar, and saxophone are my personal favorites.

Silent Yoga
Strike a yoga pose and see how long your students can hold it. Google "Kid Yoga" for some easy examples. 

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A Principal’s Guide to the 5-Minute Classroom Walkthrough

 

classroom walkthroughsTired of the checklists, the paperwork, the stress, and the push-back that comes with the traditional classroom observation process? So are we. That’s why we threw away the old model and started using the five-minute classroom walkthrough.

How can anyone perform a classroom or teacher evaluation in only five minutes? Unlike traditional observations, five-minute walk-throughs don’t bite off more than they can chew. Quick evaluations target specific and therefore digestible goals and keep both the observer and observed from being overwhelmed.

In order for five-minute walkthroughs to work, administrators should:

  • Have a specific observation goal
  • Conduct walkthroughs routinely and across all classrooms
  • Have clear documentation summarizing the goals, observations, and conclusions

To put your five-minute walkthroughs into play, take the following steps:

Begin with a staff meeting that includes teachers
Before the observation, administration should call a staff-wide meeting to clearly explain what a 5-minute walk-through is and encourage staff involvement. Teachers should be told exactly what will be observed during the process.

Set up observation teams
While walk-throughs can be done by one person, it is best for two or more people to routinely participate so each person can have a specific task and more meaningful data can be accumulated. Rotating some of the observers each time is even more beneficial.

Before each walk-through, the team should set one specific goal. For example:

  • Let's see what student writing samples are displayed in the classroom.
  • Name the teaching strategies used by the teacher.
  • Are the learning goals for the lesson clear?
  • Let's evaluate the level of student engagement with the lesson.
  • What do we see that the teacher might not?
  • Is technology being used consistently throughout the classrooms?

By focusing on one objective and applying it to every classroom, the team will get a clear sense of whether the school/district goals are being met.  Strengths and weaknesses will become obvious.  If walk-throughs are routine, a bad or good day will matter less and less because a consistent theme—whether positive, negative, or neutral—will emerge.

Produce Clear Documented Reflections
When the day's walk-throughs are complete, the team should take the time to clearly pinpoint the observations and communicate them to the observed teachers.  This valuable feedback will create goals for subsequent walk-throughs.

The hope is that administrators, teachers, and even students, will begin to feel like part of a more collective whole.  Learning goals become shared, regardless of grade level or subject expertise. The result is that developing teachers continue to become more effective and engaged in the classroom. 

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Raise the Praise, Minimize the Criticize: 5 Tips for Principals

 

principalsHow do we nurture positive relationships with our teachers and staff? How do we build their confidence and push them to succeed? If you asked the authors of Motivating & Inspiring Teachers: The Educational Leader's Guide for Building Staff Morale, they’d probably tell you to “raise the praise and minimize the criticize.”

It’s a corny little aphorism, but that doesn’t make it any less true. To help you do this, we’d like to share five of Dale Lumpa and Todd and Beth Whitaker’s positive feedback tips for principals.

The praise must be authentic

Many of us shy away from praising others because we don’t know what to say…and when we don’t know what to say, we start inventing compliments…and when we start inventing compliments, the act itself feels contrived.

Look, if the praise is invented, you’re better off keeping it to yourself.

Authentic praise is always genuine and never contrived. Because it is authentic, it will never grow weary, lose its credibility, or become less believable over time. Just remember, authentic praise does not need to be monumental. It only needs to be true.

The praise must be specific
The behavior we acknowledge in a positive way is often the behavior that will be continued. That’s why it is important to be specific when we praise teachers. For example, acknowledging that a teacher did an effective job of using questioning skills during a class period that you dropped in to informally observe can help reinforce that teaching style.

It is also worth noting that when you are specific, odds are that you are also being authentic.

The praise must be immediate
Praise will have more impact when it is delivered in a timely manner.

To practice giving out immediate positive feedback, try this during “drop-in” supervision:  Bring your legal pad. If you visit, say, eight classes for two to five minutes each, stay seated in the last class for a bit longer and write specific words of praise for each of the eight teachers—that is, assuming that there is something positive to reinforce. Now return to your office, type them up, print, and place your comments in each teacher’s mailbox.

The praise must be clean
If praise is to be clean, it cannot include the word “but.” If we are trying to compliment something and we say, “I appreciated the tone of voice you were using with Stephen today, but I also noticed that you didn’t do such and such.”

 You see what you just did? You completely undermined the compliment. Your teacher will feel that you’ve used a “compliment” to pad your criticism.

The praise should be private
You may want to praise your teachers publically, but consider doing this privately. Why? Because you should protect the feelings of others. You do not want your staff members to be resented by other faculty and staff.  

 

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The Fifteen-Minute Faculty Meeting and Why It’s Worth Trying

 

faculty meetingTeachers are busy. And you know what bugs busy teachers? Having their time wasted in long, disorganized faculty meetings.

Now before we throw out the baby with the bathwater, we should probably get something straight: Faculty meetings are not only necessary, they can be extremely productive. Too often, though, they drone on and on, covering policies, procedures, and pep talks that would be better suited in a weekly faculty memo.

While we can make the most of our time by preplanning, coming with a positive attitude, and respecting the clock, perhaps whittling down those hour-long faculty meetings into a tightly organized, 15-minute gathering, is worth a shot.

Why 15 Minutes?
15 minutes isn’t much time, that’s true, but there’s a reason for it—just like there’s a reason that    TED talks max out at the 18-minute mark: Time is valuable. Our attention spans are short.

The 15-minute meeting may be new to educators, but it’s old hat in the corporate world. In fact, Google has been doing it for almost a decade. Why though? I think Kevan Lee, a staff writer at Fast Company gives us a couple of convincing reasons to shy away from traditional, hour-long meetings:

  • Work expands to the time you schedule for it. In other words, if we set aside an hour, we’re probably going to use it, even if we don’t need to.
  • Second, 15 minutes is more than enough time if the meeting has a purpose, tasks are made and assigned, and you keep computers and phones out of the meeting room.

Then there’s the issue of attention span. Research suggests that the average attention span of adults is twenty minutes or less. Some reports even claim that, thanks to the Internet, satellite TV, DVR and smart phone technology, our attention spans have become considerable shorter.

While not ever faculty meeting can be paired down to 15 minutes, it is certainly something worth trying. To help you do this, and make the most of your time, check out this 2006 article in Bloomberg Business Week.

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What First-Year Teachers Should Know That Textbooks Don’t Show

 

first year teacherRather than give you a lengthy introduction about the fun and follies of being a first-year teacher, we’re just going to dive right in. While this list is by no means exhaustive, we’d like to share 5 things first-year teachers should know about the profession.

Your classroom is your first responsibility
Obviously, right? Well, it may not be obvious to everyone. When you’re the new guy or gal on the block, it’s tempting to sign up for any opportunity that comes your way so that you can prove yourself. Unless you were specifically hired to coach softball or organize the school plays, hang tight for the first year and concentrate on your classroom. While taking on after-school programs will most certainly lead to rewarding experiences, they can turn into a nightmare if you are still learning to teach.

You’re students don’t need you to be their friend
You’ve probably heard of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and even if you haven’t, you know from experience that love and intimacy are basic human needs. We all want to love and be loved—but look, you’re going to do a lot of damage when you try to earn your students affection by letting your classroom management slip. Just keep in mind it is easier to give than it is to take away.

Your students have friends—and let’s be frank, even if you’re still in your twenties, you’re older than dirt in the eyes of your students. Come to terms with the fact that you’ll never be as cool as they are. You are an authority figure and a leader. Act like one.

Content first, classroom management second
There is a caveat to what we said above. Classroom management is important, but it should not be your primary focus. If you facilitate an engaging classroom environment, challenge students, and treat them fairly, your classroom management system will develop organically. This is really just a long way of saying be proactive rather than reactive.

Learn Their Names
You’ll learn your students’ names quickly, but what about the custodians, the lunch room staff, the secretaries, and parapros? Learn their names, know what they do, know who they are and what makes them tick. Not only is this common courtesy, it’s just smart business. These folks will help you in ways that you couldn’t even imagine. Take our word on this.

Take the weekend off—at least most of it
First-year teachers are often surprised by a few things:

  • First, you’re not going to believe how much of your job is tied up in paperwork.
  • Second, the paperwork won’t end until sometime in June.
  • Third, you’re going to get really, really tired of it.

One of the best things you can do for yourself is create a realistic grading schedule. If you know you can only grade 10-15 papers in a night, don’t bring home a stack of 50; this will stress you out and lead to exhaustion. 

That said, you must—for your own sanity and the sanity of your students—take time for yourself. You’ll have to do some work on the weekends, there’s really no way around it, but most of your weekend should be for you—not your students. Take care of yourself. Know when to put away the books and papers and live for yourself.

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3 Bullying Intervention Strategies for Principals

 

bully interventionWe’ve seen the documentaries and heard the statistics. We know that bullying is a problem, but how do we stop it? We’d like to take a shot at answering this question by sharing three bullying intervention strategies.

Before we continue, it is worth noting that in order for these bullying intervention strategies to be successful, our teachers and support staff must all be on the same page. Divisions, skepticism, and lack of buy-in will jeopardize the success of these intervention methods.

3 Bullying Intervention Strategies for Principals

Create rules that are specific and enforceable
Many teachers proudly proclaim that they only have one rule in their classrooms: “Always be respectful.” We’ve heard principals say similar things about their schools.

This sounds nice, but what in the world does “always be respectful mean?” And how can you enforce something so general? You can’t!

Definitions of what it means to be “respectful” often vary from one person to the next. Students might think that spreading rumors about their peers on Facebook is perfectly acceptable behavior because it is done outside of school; we, on the other hand, would argue the exact opposite.

Rather than debate the nature of “respect” with students, circumvent the issue altogether by creating rules that are specific and enforceable. Students need to know what behavior constitutes “bullying” and what consequences will follow should they choose to engage in bullying.

Strengthen the victim
Teaching victims to become less vulnerable by not giving the bully a reaction can be effective, especially in one-on-one confrontations. “Fogging” is one method we can teach our students.

When a victim “fogs,” he or she acknowledges that what the bully says may be true—or at least seems true to the bully—without getting defensive and upset. To give you a sense for how fogging works, here is a short script created by bullying-prevention expert, Dr. Ken Rigby.

Bully: You have a great big nose
Target: True, it is large
Bully: It looks like a beak
Target: True, it does stand out
Bully: You are the ugliest kid in the school
Target: That's your opinion
Bully: You are wearing ugly shoes
Target: They are pretty old.

As students become more confident, teach them to ask the bully questions; this may surprise, and ultimately disarm, the bully.

Bully:
You are such an idiot.
Target: Why do you think so? (Wait for the answer)
Bully: Everybody hates you.
Target: That's interesting. Why do you think that? (Wait for the answer)
Bully: You are always in the library at lunch time
Target: That's right. Why does that concern you? (Wait for an answer)
Bully: All those kids in the library are nerds
Target: It may seem like that to you.
Bully: You have no friends
Target: Well, that's what you think. 

If you’re interested in a few other “fogging” techniques, click here. 

Use the support-group method
This is a non-punitive approach in which the student who is engaging in bullying behavior is confronted at a group meeting. It is important that the facilitators (teachers and principals) interview the victim before this meeting and have a substantive account of the incident and evidence they can share with the bully.   

You may wish to include a number of students—those who have witnessed, but not intervened, on behalf of the victim—in this meeting. Give each student the opportunity to say what he or she will do to help the victim should the behavior continue. The facilitators must carefully monitor the outcome of this meeting and, if necessary, schedule a follow-up.

Photo credit: Eddie~S / Foter / CC BY

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